DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosing Substance Use Disorders
SAMHSA and the DSM-5 recognize nine distinct addictive disorders:
Although AA was instrumental in emphasizing the "disease concept" of alcoholism, the defining work was done by Elvin Jellinek, M.D., of the Yale Center of Alcohol Studies. In his book, The Disease Concept of Alcoholism, published in 1960, Jellinek described alcoholics as individuals with tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and either "loss of control" or "inability to abstain" from alcohol. He asserted that these individuals could not drink in moderation, and, with continued drinking, the disease was progressive and life-threatening.
- Personality Disorder Research Paper discusses different disorders.
It seems clear that AA has helped many people overcome alcohol use disorders. However, few would describe alcohol addiction as different in kind from habituation to use of opiates and other substances, and it is not at all clear that total abstinence and peer support combined with the religious focus of AA are either necessary or sufficient to address substance use disabilities. As stated succinctly by Gabrielle Glazer in the Atlantic, “The history of AA is the story of how one approach to treatment took root before other options existed, inscribing itself on the national consciousness and crowding out dozens of newer methods that have since been shown to work better.”
2. Non-confrontational strategic Motivational Interviewing;
- A research paper on schizoaffective disorders look at the research data for the mood disorder that begins in individuals between the ages of 16 and 25.
3. The medication acamprosate (see below);
Mental health policies and laws are absent or inadequate in most countries of the world and yet they are critical to improving conditions for people with mental disabilities.