Problems Of Management In The 21st Century PDF …
Management Challenges in the 21st Century
She included two of the 21st century skills—adaptability and self-management/self-development—in the domain of dispositions, and two others—complex communication/social skills and nonroutine problem-solving skills—in the domain of cross-functional skills. The science knowledge domain is defined by the four strands of science proficiency listed above (National Research Council, 2007a). The resulting construct is represented in .
* The 5 principles of scientific ..
Ruiz-Primo explained that she reviewed several existing assessment items to consider their ability to measure adaptability, complex communications, nonroutine problem solving, and self-management/self-development. She selected assessment items from science as well as other domains, as requested by the planning committee. Returning to the construct she proposes, she asked what types of assessment tasks would yield evidence that a student can “generate and evaluate scientific evidence and explanations” (National Research Council, 2007a, p. 2). In answer to her own question, she said that tasks should require students to do something or critique examples of scientific evidence and explanations, and they should involve ill-structured or nonroutine problems. In addition, she proposed that the tasks should be constrained in terms of time allowed or collaborations required, in order to measure not only complex communication and nonroutine problem solving, but also adaptability and self-management. Based on all of these considerations, she concluded that such assessment methods as essays and performance assessment tasks were promising candidates to assess the four 21st century skills. She then reviewed four assessment items, discussed below.