b. A propaganda campaign must begin at the optimum moment

The story of the Nazi rise to power in the Germany of the 1930s is often seen as a classic example of how to achieve political ends through propaganda. The Nazis themselves were certainly convinced of its effectiveness, and Adolf Hitler devoted two chapters in his book Mein Kampf ('My Struggle', 1925), to an analysis of its use. He saw propaganda as a vehicle of political salesmanship in a mass market, and argued that it was a way of conveying a message to the bulk of the German people, not to intellectuals.

b. They must be capable of being easily learned

c. It must oversee other agencies' activities which have propaganda consequences

d. They must be boomerang-proof

In 1938, the same year that Hitler’s Germany annexed Austria, a 30-year-old conductor from Salzburg led the Berlin State Opera in a production of ’s . The show was spectacular, and the Austrian conductor Herbert von Karajan was hailed as a wonder. Soon after, he signed a lucrative contract with . Already a member of the Nazi party, von Karajan was on the way to becoming one of the leading musicians of the Third Reich. Like many of his fellow non-Jewish German musicians, however, von Karajan was to emerge from World War II relatively unscathed, going on to become one of the most-recorded musicians in the world. While his egotism and ambition were no secret, his political convictions were vague enough to allow the post-war musical world to look the other way.

By Professor David Welch Last updated 2011-03-30

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.

c. By goading the enemy into revealing vital information about himself
a. The communication must reach the audience ahead of competing propaganda.

Propaganda in Nazi Germany - Wikipedia

However, the very thing that threatened his career in the Third Reich was to salvage it after the war was over. After the war, the Soviets issued a prohibition on the conductor’s public performances – his voluntary entrance into the Nazi party several years before the war began was enough to condemn him. By 1947, though, all bans had been lifted, and he was free to perform and conduct at will. The clearing of his name was largely thanks to his part-Jewish wife, whose Jewishness he exploited in order to plead ‘resistance’ to the Reich. Some historians believe that he deliberately lied in order to ensure his denazification. In any case, his career continued on its astronomical trajectory toward fame and fortune. In 1955 von Karajan took over as music director of the Berlin Philharmonic; in addition, he led the Vienna State Opera and the Salzburg Festival, as well as working extensively in London and around the world. He remained the artistic director of the Berlin Philharmonic until he retired in 1989, due to poor health. Soon after retiring, von Karajan died in Salzburg, one of the wealthiest and most famous conductors in the world.

c. A propaganda theme must be repeated, but not beyond some point of diminishing effectiveness

Nazi policies towards women - Women in Nazi Germany

a. They must evoke desired responses which the audience previously possesses

Nazi Germany documents | Alpha History