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So, even if one accepts the reasoning that malicious code is desirable because it increases awareness of security issues, the increased awareness is practically effective, hence this "justification" fails.

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To what extent do you agree? (Reported 2017, GT Test)

Do you agree or disagree? (Reported 2017, Academic Test)


In a typical attack, the hacker will delete some pages or graphics,then upload new pages with the same name as the old file, so thatthe hacker controls the message conveyed by the site.

What do you think are the causes of this?

Some acts lose meaning during a war. The assassination of international leaders is one such case. Many people questioned before during and after the war if the coalition should have ensured Saddam Hussein's premature death. Under a 1981 Executive Order, the U.S. government is forbidden to participate in assassination. But during wartime, international law recognizes military commanders as legitimate targets. During the Gulf War, the assassination of Saddam Hussein was never revealed as an official goal but every location where he should have been was bombed. Most military analysts believed that if Hussein was killed, the war would have ended instantly, (Beyer 1991). It was easy for the American public to accept the effort because the leader in question was the enemy's. Less savory would be the thought of Iraqi bombers dumping ordnance on the White House, claiming it was a just act of war. The difference was that Hussein was located within the physical limits of the war. President Bush was not. So if Hussein was killed in a bombing raid while in Baghdad, no moral question is raised. Similarly, if President Bush was killed in a bombing raid while visiting Al Jubial, no moral rule would be broken. But what if the leaders are removed from the area of hostilities? Are they fair game? International law says they are. Therefore, the idea of assassination being morally wrong loses all meaning during war because the political leaders are legitimate targets. The moral equivalency of the "assassin" is the same as that of the coalition soldier fighting in the desert. It is the dysfunctional agreement during war: both sides try to kill the other side's forces, including the leaders.

Many criminals commit further crimes as soon as they released from prison.

What can be done to reduce the crime rate?

Most of you probably have nothing against me, and most of you would treat me the sameas any other person would; probably better than some of the people on the outside wouldtreat me, because you think I believe in you and they know I do not believe in them. Whileyou would not have the least thing against me in the world you might pick my pockets. I donot think all of you would, but I think some of you would. You would not have anythingagainst me, but that’s your profession, a few of you. Some of the rest of you, if mydoors were unlocked, might come in if you saw anything you wanted — not out of maliceto me, but because that is your trade. There is no doubt there are quite a number ofpeople in this jail who would pick my pockets. And still I know this, that when I getoutside pretty nearly everybody picks my pocket. There may be some of you who would holdup a man on the street, if you did not happen to have something else to do, and needed themoney; but when I want to light my house or my office the gas company holds me up. Theycharge me one dollar for something that is worth twenty-five cents, and still all thesepeople are good people; they are pillars of society and support the churches, and they arerespectable.

Some people think that poverty is the reason behind most crimes.

Fees. I understand that JustGive will deduct a fee of 4.5% plus 35¢ per donation from my transaction to cover processing and handling costs.

I originally wrote this essay in May 1999.

When I ride on the street cars, I am held up — I pay five cents for a ride that isworth two and a half cents, simply because a body of men have bribed the city council andthe legislature, so that all the rest of us have to pay tribute to them.

What other solutions can you suggest?

This same technology allowed banks to retrieve a customer's currentbalance from the bank's central computer, and merchants to process credit cardbilling without sending paper forms.

Discuss both sides and give your opinion.

The initial password may have been seen by someone who gaveor mailed it to you.

Use a password at each website, service provider,or computer account.

Changing your password every few weeks is standard advice fromcomputer security experts.