changed drastically with the Industrial Revolution era.
The most coveted fuel of the Industrial Revolution is first used.
I earlier compared people from different epochs. That stone tool Tesla what his/her invention would lead to a half-million years later, and members of the founding group could not have comprehended . Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into Rome in 100 CE or London in 1500 CE. History has some relevant examples. When , about the last of his people, came out of hiding in his dying world and strode into civilization, it caused a sensation. He soon died of tuberculosis, but his encounters with civilization were recorded. He attended an opera, and the popular account portrayed his rapport with the diva, but Ishi actually stared in amazement at the , as he had never before seen so many people in one place. When he saw an airplane in flight, he laughed in amazement. Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into imperial Rome. That hunter-gatherer had probably seen dogs, but horses, cows, sheep, and the like would have been astounding, and watching a horse or ox pull a cart would have been stunning. Crops would have been an amazing sight. Imagine that hunter-gatherer at the . The building and crowd alone would have boggled his mind, even if the festivities might have been horrifically familiar. Metals and glass would have seemed magical. Writing had not yet been invented in that hunter-gatherer’s world, so even the concept would have been difficult. Imagine him trying to learn math. There were no more singing and dancing religious rituals, and no wide-open spaces to hunt a meal. Imagine that hunter-gatherer visiting a Roman bath. Hot water alone would have been surreal, while the cavorting might have been delightful. What would his reaction have been to Rome’s markets? Rome was also loud and could be hellish, so the hunter-gatherer might have longed to flee to the countryside before long, but the countryside would have little resembled the one he knew. He obviously would not have understood anything that anybody said, but they were also all members of , so he would have seen many behaviors and traits that he eventually understood. But how long would his shock have lasted? Could he have really ever adapted to Roman society (if he did not quickly end up on the arena’s stage as a novelty)? Another surprise for that hunter-gatherer would be seeing people interact who did not know each other. People were interacting with members and not trying to kill them on sight, which became standard behavior in most hunter-gatherer societies that battled over territory (their food supply). Civilized life was all made possible by the local and stable energy source that agriculture provided, which led to an epoch that changed very little until the next energy source was tapped: the hydrocarbon energy that powered the Industrial Revolution. The next chapter will survey the developments that led to that momentous event. It is the only Epochal Event with historical documentation that showed how it developed, which is easier to reconstruct than examining stones and bones.
American Industrialization Essay - 714 Words
Across all preindustrial civilizations, reacted in different ways to the energy surplus that domestication afforded, which usually depended on environmental variables, such as whether the arable land was bounded or whether shifting cultivation (as the soils were depleted) was feasible for relatively sedentary populations. The early states that arose where cultivation could be continual for a plot of land (through fertilizer and other methods) and were geographically bounded by barriers such as mountains, deserts, and bodies of water ( and ), were generally dominated by an elite in a steeply hierarchical society in what has been called the "exclusionary domination" model. The "corporate" model was more feasible where shifting cultivation could be practiced and geographical boundaries were minor (pre-state , the ancient culture in today's Nigeria) and less dominated by "great men" (monarchies) and more by groups that shared power (oligarchies, while constantly jockeying for it), and their control was more over labor than land. Most states arose where the arable land was both unbounded and permanent, or at least permanent. In anthropological circles, the corporate and exclusionary domination models of early civilizations often seemed to vie and interact, with one succeeding the other at times. However, whether it was monarchy or corporate oligarchy, the surplus was so small in agrarian civilizations that only a small elite and professional class could exist. Freedom was always a scarce commodity that primarily resided with the elite. While there was some variation in social organization across the world's agrarian cultures, the basics were identical for all of them, with elites and professionals riding atop the peasant class and extracting the agricultural surplus from them via a variety of carrots and sticks. Without the energy that agriculture provided, large sedentary populations were not possible, and without an agricultural surplus, civilization could not have formed. about the formation and trajectory of civilizations depended on those energy dynamics. Without those levels of energy generation, the game simply could not be played. In their most essential fundamentals, .