The History of Islam in Africa: A Historical Overview
The History of Islam in Africa: A Historical Overview ..
Students of indigenous populations face significant obstacles. Of the most formidable is the biased textual record the invaders left. Almost everything we know about sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Indians emanates from European chroniclers. Comparing multiple first-hand accounts in a comparative – i.e., French, English, Spanish, and Dutch writings – context can overcome some of the bias naturally built into one-sided perspectives. Archaeological evidence can provide some correctives. Perhaps most promising of all is ethnographic analyses of Indian behavior. Studying Indians up close in discrete contexts, what social historians have called “thick description,” provides more certainty and sure-footedness in interpreting scant evidence and overcoming the attitudes and paying close attention to local circumstances and conditions from their unique historical perspective. In other words, thick description means not just describing behavior, but analyzing behavior in its context in ways that can be understood today. It requires an ethnographic approach, the system of meanings encoded in material and spiritual culture. Historians like Karen Ordahl Kupperman provide a good example of ethnogenetic analysis. In a chapter on “reading Indian bodies, Kupperman looked at hair styles, posture, dress, tattoos, and other signifiers of “self-presentation.” The author has also used this same approach to pursue the ethnogenesis of American Indians broadly in sixteenth century North America.
Overview of the Academic Essay
Advanced practice nursing has evolved over the years to become recognized today as an important and growing trend among healthcare systems worldwide. To understand the development and current status of advanced practice nursing within a Canadian context, it is important to explore its historical roots and influences. The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the major influences on the development of advanced practice nursing roles that exist in Canada today, those roles being the nurse practitioner and the clinical nurse specialist. Using a scoping review and qualitative interviews, data were summarized according to three distinct time periods related to the development of advanced practice nursing. They are the early beginnings; the first formal wave, between the mid 1960s and mid 1980s; and the second wave, beginning in the late 1980s and continuing to the present. This paper highlights how advanced practice nursing roles have evolved over the years to meet emerging needs within the Canadian healthcare system. A number of influential factors have both facilitated and hindered the development of the roles, despite strong evidence to support their effectiveness. Given the progress over the past few decades, the future of advanced practice nursing within the Canadian healthcare system is promising.