Faust History Literature Essays] 1682 words ..

Chilonis III – (fl. c249 – 241 BC)
Greek queen
Chilonis III was the daughter of King Leonidas III of Sparta and his wife Kratesikleia. She was married to King Kleombrotus to whom she bore two children. Her husband usurped the throne from her father, and when Leonidas was exiled to Tegea Chilonis left her husband in order to join her father. Later the enemies of Kleombrotus restored Leonidas to the throne and the usurper fled to the temple of Poseidon for sanctuary. With her two children present she pleaded successfully with Leonidas for the life of her husband. The historian Plutarch recorded in his lives of Agis and Kleomenes that ‘all beholders were moved to wonder and tears at the fidelity and devotion of the woman.’ The king ordered Kleombrotus into exile but begged Chilonis to remain in Sparta. The queen refused and with her children loyally accompanied her husband into exile. Plutarch observed ‘that if Kleombrotus had not been wholly corrupted by vain ambition, he would have considered that exile was a greater blessing for him than the kingdom, because it restored to him his wife.’

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Catherine of Braganza – (1638 – 1705)
Queen consort of Great Britain (1662 – 1685)
Princess Catherine of Braganza was born (Nov25, 1638) at Vila Vicosa, near Lisbon in Estramadura, the daughter of Joao VI, King of Portugal, formerly Duke of Braganza, and his wife Luiza Maria de Guzman. She married (1662) Charles II, King of England, with Tangiers and Bombay as her dowry. Despite several miscarriages, Catherine bore no surviving children, and sufferred the humiliation of having to receive the king’s mistress Barbara Villiers and her children at court. Her childlessness notwithstanding, her husband appears to have been genuinely fond of Catherine, and he refused all pressure from the government and courtiers to divorce her, and personally defended her in court, against the lies and calumnies of Titus Oates during the furore of the so-called ‘Popish Plot’ (1678). Though he generally treated her fairly, she always remained a secondary figure at his court.
Widowed in 1685, Catherine retired to Somerset House. As queen dowager, she vainly interceded with James II on behalf of her bastard stepson, the Duke of Monmouth, was present at the birth of James Edward Stuart (1688), and remained on pleasant terms with William and Mary. However, her Roman Catholicism always rendered her suspect, and seven years after the king’s death, Queen Catherine returned to Portugal (1692). There she was later appointed to rule as regent (1704) for her brother Pedro II during an illness. Queen Catherine died in office (Dec 31, 1705), at the Palace of Bemposta, Lisbon, and was interred at Belem. The queen was the subject of the historical romance With All My Heart by Margaret Campbell Barnes, and Wife to Charles II (1965) by Hilda Lewis, and appears as a character in the historical novels A Health Unto His Majesty (1956) and Here Lies Our Sovereign Lord (1956) by Jean Plaidy.

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Charito – (fl. 578 – 582)
Byzantine princess
Chariot was born (c559) the elder daughter of the Emperor Tiberius II Constantinus (578 – 582) and his wife Anastasia (formerly Ino). Her sister Constantina was the wife of the Emperor Maurice (582 – 602). She became the wife of Germanus, who was probably the son of Justinianus and a connection of the family of the Emperor Justinian I. Justinianus had served as the magister militiae of the East (575 – 577). Charito was married to Germanus in 582, and he was then created Caesar, together with his brother-in-law Maurice (Aug 5, 582). Because of his natural humility Charito’s husband refused to ascend the Imperial throne on the death of his father-in-law, and Maurice succeeded as sole emperor. Nothing more was recorded of Princess Charito or her husband after this date. Her marriage was recorded by Theophanes in his Chronogrophia and by Joannes Zonaras in his Epitome Historiarum.

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Cleopatra IV – (c140 – 112 BC)
Ptolemaic queen
Cleopatra IV was the eldest daughter of Ptolemy VII and his second wife and sister Cleopatra II. She was married (c124 BC) to her eldest brother, Ptolemy VIII Lathyrus (140 - 80 BC), by whom she was the mother of Queen Berenike IIII. Divorced by Lathyrus (116 BC), Cleopatra IV was remarried, at the request of her mother, to the Seleucid pretender Antiochus X Cyzenicus (c136 - 95 BC), who established himself as king in Antioch. Her husband was defeated by his rival Antiochus VIII, the husband of her younger sister Cleopatra Tryphaena, and Cleopatra IV managed to escape. The queen fled to the temple of Apollo at Daphne for sanctuary, but her sister brutally hacked her to pieces as she clung to the altar. The son of her second marriage, Antiochus X Eusebius (c114 – 83 BC) later married his stepmother, her youngest sister Cleopatra V Selene. She appears in the historical novel The Cleopatras (1983) by Philip Mackie, and was portrayed by actress Sue Holderness in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Cleopatras (1983).

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Cleopatra II – (c188 – 115 BC)
Ptolemaic queen
Cleopatra II was the daughter of Ptolemy V and Cleopatra I and she was married successively (c167 BC) to her two full brothers, Ptolemy VI and Ptolemy VII. She was the mother of Cleopatra III and Cleopatra Thea who were both fathered by Ptolemy VI, as were her two sons Ptolemy Eupator and Ptolemy Neos. With the death of Ptolemy VI (145 BC) her sons were still young boys, and her brother-in-law Ptolemy VII Physcon (so named because of his corpulence) was able to enter Alexandria and successfully claim the throne without opposition. He came to terms with Cleopatra II, who consented to marry him in order to regain a share of the government. Ptolemy caused her two sons to be murdered, and the queen bore him a son Ptolemy Memphites. During this period Cleopatra II owned ships that transported the royal grain, and some surviving papyri refer to the king and queen as 'The Pharoahs Ptolemy and Cleopatra.'
However, when her second husband replaced her with her daughter Cleopatra III (c140 BC), and the queen appealed to the people of Alexandria for help. Public disturbances caused Ptolemy VII to flee the capital and take refuge in Cyprus, whilst Cleopatra II assumed sole command in the capital. In vengeance Ptolemy VII murdered their son Memphites, sending his corpse, with limbs torn apart, as a present for her birthday. From 129 BC Ptolemy began coming to terms with his former wife, but the final restoration only occurred in 118 BC, when the king issued an act of Grace of ‘Queen Cleopatra the Sister,’ and ‘Queen Cleopatra the Wife.’ Despite the fact that Ptolemy and Cleopatra came to an outward agreement in Alexandria, the dynastic conflict had extended to the coutryside, where the troops and the people took sides for the king and queen, and waged a protracted and confused civil war. Queen Cleopatra II only briefly survived her husband. She appears in the historical novel The Cleopatras (1983) by Philip Mackie, and was portrayed by actress Elizabeth Shepherd in the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) series The Cleopatras (1983).

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Caroline Matilda of Great Britain – (1751 – 1775)
Queen consort of Denmark (1766 – 1772)
Princess Caroline Matilda was born (July 11, 1751) at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Field, London, the youngest and posthumous child of Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, the son and heir of George II (1727 – 1760), and his wife Augusta, daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha. Her eldest brother was King George III (1760 – 1820). Caroline Matilda was raised under the strict supervision of her widowed mother at Leicester House. Her mother and brother arranged for her dynastic marriage (1766) with her Danish cousin, the mentally unstable Christian VII (1749 – 1808), who inherited the throne from his father, Frederick V in the same year. Christian’s mother, Louisa of Great Britain (1723 – 1751), had been daughter to George II. She was the mother of Frederick VIII (1768 – 1839), who married and left issue. She was crowned as queen consort at Roskilde (May 1, 1767).
The Danish court was controlled by her husband’s grandmother, the Regent Sophia Magdalena, but with her death (1770), Christian succeeded as sole ruler. The marriage deteriorated, and the queen came increasingly under the influence of her handsome physician, Johann Struensee (1737 – 1772), who was eventually to be made a count. Despite the fact that her second child, Princess Louisa Augusta (1771 – 1843) (later Duchess of Holstein-Augunstenburg) was declared the king’s child, most contemporaries and later historians believe her to have been fathered by Struensee. After a palace coup organized by her mother-in-law, the Queen Doawger Juliana Maria, widow of Frederick V, and stepmother to Christian, Caroline Matilda was seperated from her son, and imprisoned in Elsinore. Struensee was arrested, and condemned to death. George III of England intervened on his sister’s behalf, and a British warship arrived to take Queen Caroline Matilda away from Denmark for ever (1772). Her daughter remained behind and she never saw her children again. The king did not wish to have her in England due to the scandal surrounding her marriage and divorce, so she was sent to reside at the castle of Celle in Hanover, Germany, where her paternal grandmother, Sophia Dorothea of Celle had spent the last thirty years of her life (1694 – 1726). Queen Caroline Matilda died there (May 10, 1775) aged only twenty-three, and buried at Celle. Caroline Matilda appears as a character in the historical novel The Third George (1969) by Jean Plaidy.