The USA finished off humanity’s greatest war by dropping history’s most destructive weapons on cities, and then . In the wake of dropping nuclear weapons on women and children, the USA had unprecedented global hegemony, controlled both sides of both major oceans, and possessed half of the world’s wealth and industrial capacity. Then began the , which was an era of economic prosperity never seen before or since, and I had the good fortune to be born in the midst of it. Above all else, it was an economic event born of cheap energy and has been called the Golden Age of American Capitalism. When energy ceased being cheap in the 1970s, the boom ended and the long decline set in, not just for the USA, but the world in general, which is the next chapter's subject.

"Tomorrow, When the War Began" by John Marsden

Homer Yannos - from "Tomorrow When the War Began" …

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are created by undisturbed organism remains that become saturated with various chemicals, which gradually replace the organic material with rock by . Few life forms ever become fossils but are instead consumed by other life. Rare dynamics lead to fossil formation, usually by anoxic conditions leading to undisturbed sediments that protect the evidence and fossilize it. Scientists estimate that only about 1%-2% of all species that ever existed have left behind fossils that have been recovered. Geological processes are continually creating new land, both on the continents and under the ocean. Seafloor strata do not provide much insight into life’s ancient past, particularly fossils, because the process in “mere” . The basic process is that, in the Atlantic and Pacific sea floors in particular, oceanic volcanic ridges spew out basalt and the plates flow toward the surrounding continents. When oceanic plates reach continental plates, the heavier (basaltic) oceanic plates are subducted below the lighter (granitic) continental plates. Parts of an oceanic plate were more than 100 mya and left behind plate fragments. On the continents, however, as they have floated on the heavier rocks, tectonic and erosional processes have not obliterated all ancient rocks and fossils. The oldest “indigenous” rocks yet found on Earth are . have been dated to 3.5 bya, and fossils of individual cyanobacteria have been dated to 1.5 bya. There are recent claims of finding . The oldest eukaryote fossils found so far are of . The first amoeba-like vase-shaped fossils date from about 750 mya, and there are recent claims of finding the first animal fossils in Namibia, of sponge-like creatures which are . Fossils from might be the first animal fossils, and some scientists think that animals may have first appeared about one bya. The first animals, or , probably descended from . The is a tail-like appendage that protists primarily used to move and it could also be used to create a current to capture food. Flagella were used to draw food into the first animals, which would have been sponge-like. When the first colonies developed in which unicellular organisms began to specialize and act in concert, animals were born, and it is currently thought that the evolution of animals probably only happened . In interpreting the fossil record, there are four general levels of confidence: inevitable conclusions (such as ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles), likely interpretations (ichthyosaurs appeared to give live birth instead of laying eggs), speculations (were ichthyosaurs warm-blooded?), and guesses (what color was an ichthyosaur?).

Tomorrow when the war began essay themes for …

Speciation has probably been more controversial than extinction. To be fair to Darwin, genetics was not yet a science when was published in 1859. It was not until the by Silesian friar Gregor Mendel that the science of genetics began, but Mendel’s work was until the 20th century. Darwin went to his grave unaware of Mendel’s work. Today, speciation is primarily considered to be a genetic event. But similar to how that dictate their function, and that appear at higher levels of complexity, the DNA code by itself does not explain life, although the popular frames life and evolution as a .

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This essay has presented Earth’s many changing faces during its journey. Earth had molten beginnings, was , and may have . Later, and and . Earth experienced swings from to conditions as atmospheric gases dramatically changed, continents moved, and vast and of complex life played out on land and sea. But the changes happened over timescales of millions and billions of years, not hundreds. No climate scientist will deny that carbon dioxide traps infrared radiation and warms Earth’s atmosphere. The vented enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to create 200 million years of Greenhouse Earth conditions, when reptiles ruled Earth. Volcanism waned and around 150-to-100 mya. By 35 mya, and the Antarctic ice sheet began forming. Every paleoclimate study I have seen places greenhouse gas (and primarily carbon dioxide) concentrations as the primary determinant of global surface temperatures, after the Sun's radiation, but the Sun's output is considered to have been exceptionally stable and has risen slowly over the eons. , usually by accentuating the carbon dioxide with a positive feedback effect that may have reached runaway conditions at times.

John marsden quotes tomorrow when the war began essay

marsden began when war essay John tomorrow the quotes

What I have yet to see human-agency skeptics discuss is that of multi-metric-ton herbivores and their attendant predators appeared hundreds of millions of years ago, and attaining large size was both an offensive and defensive strategy that goes back to the "arms wars" of the Cambrian Explosion. When mass extinction events happened, the race began anew. rose to prominence along with . When the wiped out those dinosaur guilds, it was not long before large herbivores began to reappear, with mammals in those niches. Within 25 million years of the bolide event, mammals reached their maximum size and , until humans arrived. Although species emerged and went extinct, just as they had for the entire eon of complex life, that guild stayed relatively constant in size. When humans arrived, . The five-to-seven ton herbivores and their predators vanished and were replaced by guilds a tiny fraction of their size. Car-sized inhabited a niche that once resided in, and soon after humans arrived, only dog-sized armadillos remained.

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Tomorrow When the War Began Essay Year 9 - 1094

"The Dead of the Night", p3
"… once again I'd underestimated Homer. He did so much thinking - not that he ever said so himself, but it was obvious from the way he spoke in our meetings. There'd been a time when a thinking Homer would have seemed as likely as a flying platypus, and I was kind of slow adjusting to the change. But from his words that day, when we gathered again at the creek, it was obvious that he hadn't stayed in a slump like some of us.
… [they react to his words, p9] …
To anyone watching (I hope there wasn't anyone) it must have resembled an outdoors ballet class. We all began to slowly unfurl and turn towards Homer. Lee dropped his piece of wood. Chris put down his pad and pen and stretched out. I stood and moved to a higher rock. Find Kevin and Corrie? Of course. The idea infused us with hope and excitement and boldness. None of us had thought anything about it because it seemed impossible. But Homer's saying it had brought it within the realms of possibility, till suddenly it seemed like the only thing to do. In fact, his saying it made it seem so possible that it was almost as if it had happened already. That was the power of the spoken word. Homer had put us back on our feet and got us dancing again. Words began to pour from all of us."