The delian league and the athenian empire+essay - …
It is also reasonable to assume that towns that felt threatened by Argos gladly asked Sparta for protection. In the sixth century, every Peloponnesian town had to make this choice between Sparta and Argos. suggests the fact that Tegea was forced and/or decided to join the Spartan alliance was the decisive moment. A part of the treaty is quoted in the by , who in turn quotes , and although the interpretation is notoriously difficult, it is clear that Tegea gave up some of its autonomous foreign policy in return for Spartan protection. After this, the balance of power between Argos and Sparta tipped in favor of the latter, the Spartan king Cleomenes defeated the Argives, and Sparta became the uncontested master of the Peloponnese.
The Peloponnesian League can best be seen as a network of probably bilateral perpetual alliances. Except for Argos, all towns on the Peloponnese were member of the Spartan alliance. Most of them had sworn, like Tegea, to subordinate their foreign policy to Spartan wishes and received protection in return. Sparta could also call for (perhaps one third of) a town's soldiers, who had to serve under Spartan command. Still, a major city like Corinth was left a considerable freedom. The historian records how in the late 430s, the Corinthians waged war against the Corcyrans without much care about Spartan leadership. The Peloponnesian League was, essentially, a loose organization of towns that shared some sentimental ties, like the cult of and the believe that many of them were Dorians. Religious festivals like the Olympic Games were, although open to all Greeks, celebrations of this Dorian sentiment.
The Peloponnesian League had no permanent institutions. Most affairs were dealt with bilaterally, and the representatives of all member states only met when the Spartans wanted it. The Congress of the Allies was a rare event. It appears that every ally had one vote, but this does not mean that the leader's wishes could be overcome, because the votes of small towns, like Orneae or Phlius, appear to have been controlled by Sparta, and besides, Sparta was not forced to accept a Congressional decision.
During the Persian War (480-479), the Peloponnesian League was the model of the Hellenic League that fought against the invaders. It met at the Corinthian isthmus. It would not be exaggerated to say that all Greek nations had now more or less become members of the alliance of Sparta and accepted its leadership. This unity did not survive when the danger had passed. The Spartan leader was incapable of keeping the allies together, so that the Hellenic League fell apart in a restored Peloponnesian League and the , which was under Athenian leadership.
The Delian League was much more advanced, being inspired by the system of the . In the course of the fifth century, the Athenians were able to convert their alliance into a centralized empire, which many Greeks regarded as an infringement upon their liberty. The loosely organized Peloponnesian League was considered to represent liberty: what the Spartan alliance lacked as organization, it compensated by goodwill.
After the , in which the Spartans and their allies defeated the Athenians and their allies, the Peloponnesian League continued to exist, even when the Persian king made the Greeks sign a common peace treaty in which the autonomy of all towns was guaranteed ("the King's peace", 387/386). Because the members of the Peloponnesian League were believed to voluntarily follow Sparta's lead, the autonomy clause did not apply to the Spartan alliance.
Delian League To Athenian Empire Essay
Ancient Athens: Delian League To An Empire Essay 60368
The first event in this period was the battle of Leuctra (July 371), in which, no doubt to the surprise of Athens, Thebes temporarily asserted itself as the chief land power in Greece. To counterbalance the new power Athens tried to induce the states which recognized the hegemony of Sparta to transfer their allegiance to the Delian league. It seems that the states adopted this policy with the exception of Elis. The policy of Athens was mistaken for two reasons: (I) Sparta was not entirely humiliated, and (2) alliance with the land powers of Pelo ponnese involved Athens in enterprises which could not awaken the enthusiasm of her maritime allies. This new coalition alarmed Sparta, which at once made overtures to Athens on the ground of their common danger from Thebes. The alliance was con cluded in 369 B.C. About the same time Iphicrates was sent to take possession of Amphipolis according to the treaty of 371. Some success in Macedonia roused the hostility of Thebes, and the subsequent attempts on Amphipolis caused the Chalcidians to declare against the league. The old suspicion of the allies was now awakened, and we find Athens making great efforts to con ciliate Mytilene by honorific decrees. This suspicion, due pri marily, no doubt, to the agreement with Sparta, was strengthened by the exchange of compliments with Dionysius I. of Syracuse, who received the Athenian citizenship, and by the Athenian alliance with Alexander of Pherae (368-367). The maritime allies had no desire to be involved in the quarrels of Sicily, Thessaly and the Peloponnese.
Delian league to athenian empire essay
With Athens’ popularity declining among the member states, the state of Xanos attempted to secede from the Alliance in 471 B.C., but their attempt was defeated by Athenian army. Xanos was then forced to give up her vote in the alliance, lose her fleet and demolish her walls. Thasos also faced the same fate when she tried to defect from the league to Persia. She did this because Athens had taken Amphipolis as her colony and Thasos saw this as a threat to her interests in the mines in Mt. Paggaion (Starr, 214). Athens popularity also declined with the transfer of the treasury from Delos to Acropolis in Athens. What was meant to be a partnership between the Greek states with Athens as the leader soon became a dictatorship where Athens was the tyrant. The taxes and tributes that were paid to Athens by the member states were not only being used to maintain the fleet but also to beautify the city of Athens.