by Rob Van Gerwen (Cambridge, 2001);, ed.

Here at last was a philosopher who had the courage to see that all was not for the best in the fundaments of the universe.
[, Vintage Books, 1961, p.

by Patrick Maynard and Susan Feagin (Oxford, 1998);Anne D.

Figure 1: Jacob Epstein, “The Tomb of Oscar Wilde,” 1912

by Catriona MacKenzie and Natalie Stoljar (Oxford, 2000);John F.

But it is not successful; and with the qualifications, elaborations, and restatements of the fundamental version of the moral law we get the impression that Kant himself feels the inadequacy of the principle.

The term is used especially in reference to our lack of of .

With the moral law, however, we get a simple rule pulled directly out of the metaphysical hat, and no real consideration at all of the source of the concepts involved or the validity of derived propositions.

Horty,  (Oxford, 2001);Nuel Belnap, Michael Perloff, and Ming Xu,  (Oxford, 2001); andCarol A.

Verbis meis addere nihil audebant

This is especially acute when Kant's argument for securing one's happiness is that "discontent with one's condition under pressure from many cares and amid unsatisfied wants could easily become a great temptation to transgress duties." Developing a talent in an area for which one feels no attraction or affinity and which generates only "discontent" and even misery "could easily become a great temptation to transgress duties." This betrays a looming incoherence in Kant's thought, which is the result, as we shall see, of duty being the only truly rational goal of action.

et super illos stillebat eloquium meum.

I suspect that this is Kant's view, as part of a system of ethics in which, as Nelson says, "every action must be characterized as either fulfillment or violation of duty." But we also have the paradox, as I have noted , that Kant thinks that "To secure one's own happiness is at least indirectly a duty." So under Kantian ethics, we seem to have a duty to develop talents that may make us unhappy, while we also have a duty to secure our happiness.

Key WordsEnlightenment, Kant, Baudelaire, modernity, aesthetics of the self, feminism

Pilgrimage of Love: Remembering Wilde before Père-Lachaise

The repentant criminal will have a change of heart and of will, to acquire the Kantian "good will," and so subsequently will be, to the best of his ability, a better person.

of the concept of tribal or so-called primitive art appeared a few years ago in the Oxford .

The , "the best of possible worlds," is, of course, a reference to .

Not surprisingly, the merits of such a question notwithstanding, we would imagine Barthes to find the question somewhat misguided. Although it is true that some music would seem to exhibit these more material aspects more readily, with the result being their greater affect for our aesthetic reception, for Barthes, the author of "Death of the Author," to focus on what the composer might have with a certain piece, or how the music is sound, risks detracting from our experience of music. There is something of a phenomenological sensibility at play here, where we entertain a kind of pragmatic bracketing of our expectations concerning the music. After all, if we are already listening for something in particular in the music, we might attain it as a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy, but then risk missing something. For Barthes-again, following Nietzsche-music first and foremost. Perhaps Barthes' extension and application of this idea can be seen in his echoing another concept of Kristeva's in describing music as , what she defines as the "unlimited and unbound generating process, this unceasing operation of the drives toward, in, and through language," and what is for Barthes "meaning in its potential voluptuousness." In other words, music, perhaps with dance, reveals, while simultaneously abstracting--(not necessarily in the sense of moving toward incomprehensibility, but, on the contrary, precisely in its seduction--the process of its very making, of its very producing, of its very creating, of its very possibility. The grain of the voice, again, "is not-or is not merely-its timbre; the it opens cannot better be defined, indeed, by the very friction between the music and something else, which something else is the particular language (and nowise the message)." For Barthes, it is not just important that we hear and feel the voice, but that we hear and feel the materiality of the voice. Barthes' erotics of music: "the body in the voice as it sings, the hand as it writes, the limb as it performs." The wager is that this will heighten our experience, charge us, and enhance our investment in the music. It is, after all, who hear and who feel the music.

“Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology,” written for  , is now available .

in all UVic Libraries (including and ).

"It never occurred to you that many people wouldn't be happy doing 'what they can do best.' As a matter of fact, many people don't give a damn about what they can do best.